Formed in New York City in 1850, the American League of Colored Laborers (ALCL) was the first African American labor union created in the United States. Frederick Douglass and other activists formed this union as a collective for Black workers who were disallowed from joining White unions.
Claude Harvard is the brains behind several of Ford Motor Company’s patented devices. The ingenious inventor created more that 2 dozen devices that Ford Motor claimed the patents for. As an employee of Ford Motor Company, Claude Harvard relinquished his rights to the patents to the corporatation.
“In 1865 the black population of Manhattan and Brooklyn totaled fewer than 15,000. By the turn of the 20th century, it had soared to over 60,000, more than half of whom hailed from the old Confederacy.” -From, “Slavery In New York”
Heavyweight boxing champion Jack Johnson had a bevy of talents. He was an inventor; inventing the wrench. He was also an astute business man. He owned and operated Club Deluxe in Harlem, located at 142nd Street and Lenox Avenue. This club later became the Cotton Club. In addition to all of this, Jack Johnson was also a musician. He played the cello and the bass.
“New York, a city whose development had been so decisively shaped by slavery. In 1860, the city’s 12,472 blacks were widely dispersed among eight different wards, in enclaves that, while often separate, were not sharply demarcated in the manner of segregated ghettos of twentieth-century Northern cities.
Black New Yorkers’ choice of where to live was hardly a free one: they clustered in certain neigborhoods because few white landlords would rent to them.” -From, “Slavery In New York”
Here card game was called, “Family Treeditions.” The game aimed to help people to figure out their family tree. She received a patent for her invention in 1980.
“Profits from slave-produced cotton propelled New York’s financial rise, while political and literary ties to Southern elites expanded the city’s influence. The paradox of slavery in a free city turned out to have been essential to the making of the modern metropolis.” -From, “Slavery In New York”
Frederick Douglass was reportedly a distant relative of Dr. Daniel Hale Williams, the first physician to perform open-heart surgery. Frederick Douglass gave Dr. Williams the following profound advice: “The only way you can succeed is to override the obstacles in your path; by the power that is within you to do what you hope to do!”